Journal Publications
Royal Life Saving's peer-reviewed research on drowning prevention and water safety published in national and international journals.

Royal Life Saving's work in drowning prevention and water safety is based on evidence-based research. This research is used to develop advice and policy to help members of the public, industry and governments to make informed decisions about water safety at a practical level.

Much of this research has been published in peer-reviewed journals and is listed below.

PublicationDate
Willcox‐Pidgeon SM, Franklin RC, Leggat P, Devine S (2021) Epidemiology of unintentional fatal drowning among migrants in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.13102
April 2021
Peden AE, Willcox-Pidgeon SM, Franklin RC, Scarr, JP (2020) Comparing rivers to lakes: Implications for drowning prevention. Australian Journal of Rural Health https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajr.12679November 2020
Jackson SD (2020) Case Study: Blended Learning Approach in Pool Lifeguard Training. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning 13(3) https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v13i3.17511October 2020
Willcox-Pidgeon SM, Franklin RC, Devine S, Leggat PA, Scarr J (2020) Reducing inequities among adult female migrants at higher risk for drowning in Australia: The value of swimming and water safety programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.407August 2020
Pearn JH, Peden AE, Franklin RC (2020) Drowning of Pet Owners during Attempted Animal Rescues: The AVIR-A Syndrome. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education 12(2):Article 8 DOI:10.25035/ijare.12.02.08April 2020
Peden AE, Willcox-Pidgeon S (2020) Autism spectrum disorder and unintentional fatal drowning of children and adolescents in Australia: an epidemiological analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood Published Online First: 13 March 2020. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2019-318658February 2020
Willcox-Pidgeon S, Franklin RD, Leggat PA, Devine S (2020) Identifying a gap in drowning prevention: high risk populations. Injury Prevention Epub. doi:10.1136/ injuryprev-2019-043432 January 2020
Willcox‐Pidgeon, SM, Peden, AE, Scarr, J (2020) Exploring children’s participation in commercial swimming lessons through the social determinants of health. Health Promotion Journal of Australia doi:10.1002/hpja.335March 2020
Peden AE, Franklin RC (2020) Learning to Swim: An Exploration of Negative Prior Aquatic Experiences Among Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(3557) DOI:10.3390/ijerph17103557May 2020
Peden, AE, Franklin, RC, Pearn JH (2019) The prevention of child drowning: the causal factors and social determinants impacting fatalities in portable pools. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 2019. 00:1-8. http://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.282August 2019
Cenderadewi, M, Franklin RC, Peden, AE, Devine, S (2019) Pattern of intentional drowning mortality: A total population retrospective cohort study in Australia, 2006-2014. BMC Public Health 19:207. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-6476-zDecember 2019
Peden AE, Franklin RC (2019) Exploring Flood-Related Unintentional Fatal Drowning of Children and Adolescents Aged 0-19 Years in Australia. Safety 5(3) DOI:10.3390/safety5030046July 2019
Hamilton K, Peden AE, Smith S, Hagger MS (2019) Predicting Pool Safety Habits and Intentions of Australian Parents and Carers for Their Young Children. Journal of Safety Research https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2019.09.006November 2019
Peden, AE, & Franklin, RC (2020) Causes of distraction leading to supervision lapses in cases of fatal drowning of children 0–4 years in Australia: A 15‐year review. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 56(3), 450–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14668October 2019
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat PA, Lindsay, D (2019) Observing patterns of river usage. Safety, 5(4), 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040066October 2019
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Willcox-Pidgeon S (2019) Media reporting of summer drowning: A partial picture, useful for advocacy. Health Promotion Journal of Australia Published online 28 September 2019 doi:10.1002/hpja.297 September 2019
Pearn JH, Peden AE, Franklin RC (2019) The influence of alcohol and drugs on drowning among victims of senior years. Safety 5(1), 8. doi:10.3390/safety5010008February 2019
Hamilton, K, Keech, JJ, Peden AE, Hagger, MS (2019) Protocol for developing a mental imagery intervention: A randomised controlled trial testing a novel implementation imagery e-health intervention to change driver behaviour during floods. BMJ Open 9(2):e025565. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025565February 2019
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Clemens T (2019) Exploring the burden of fatal drowning and data characteristics in three high income countries: Australia, Canada and New Zealand. BMC Public Health 2019;19:794. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7152-zJune 2019
Franklin RC, Peden AE, Brander R, Leggat PA (2019) Who rescues who? Understanding aquatic rescues in Australia using coronial data and a survey. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health Online 11 June 2019, doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12900June 2019
Willcox-Pidgeon S, Peden AE, Franklin RC, Scarr J (2019) Boating-related drowning in Australia: Epidemiology, risk factors and the regulatory environment. Journal of Safety Research 70:117-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2019.06.005June 2019
Peden, AE, Franklin, RC, Pearn, JH, Mahony, AJ (2019) Unintentional Bathtub Drowning Deaths Among Those Aged 65 Years and Older in Australia. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education 11(3). doi:10.25035/ijare.11.03.02March 2019
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat PA (2019) Developing drowning prevention strategies for rivers through the use of a modified Delphi process. Injury Prevention Published Online First: 30 March 2019. doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043156March 2019
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat PA. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first‐aid training of river users in Australia: A strategy for reducing drowning. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 2018;00:1-5. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.195August 2019
Hamilton K, Peden AE, Keech JJ, Hagger MS (2018) Driving through floodwater: exploring driver decisions through the lived experience. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction Available online 26 December 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.12.019December 2018
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat PA (2018) Breathalysing and surveying river users in Australia to understand alcohol consumption and attitudes toward drowning risk. BMC Public Health 18:1393. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-6256-1December 2018
Peden AE, Mahony AJ, Barnsley PD, et al. (2018) Understanding the full burden of drowning: a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of fatal and non-fatal drowning in Australia. BMJ Open 2018;8:e024868. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024868November 2018
Barnsley PD, Peden AE. (2018) A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Cohort Study Examining the Risk of Unintentional Fatal Drowning During Public Holidays in Australia. Safety 2018; 4(4):42. doi.org/10.3390/safety4040042September 2018
Peden AE, Barnsley PD, Queiroga AC (2018) The association between school holidays and unintentional fatal drowning among children and adolescents aged 5–17 years. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health doi:10.1111/jpc.14235 September 2018
Barnsley PD, Peden AE, Scarr J (2018) Calculating the economic burden of fatal drowning in Australia. Journal of Safety Research 67: 57-63. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2018.09.002 September 2018
Franklin, RC, Peden, AE, & Pearn, JH (2018) Drowning deaths in Australia caused by hypoxic blackout, 2002–2015. Medical Journal of Australia 208(6), 271-271. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja17.00728April 2018
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat P (2018) The Flood-Related Behaviour of River Users in Australia. PLOS Currents Disasters 2018 Jun 14. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.89e243413a0625941387c8b9637e291bJune 2018
Peden AE, Demant D, Hagger MS, Hamilton K (2018) Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear in adults and children: A systematic literature review. PLOSONE 13(5): e0196421. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196421May 2018
Keech JJ, Smith SR, Peden AE, Hagger MS, Hamilton K. (2018) The lived experience of rescuing people who have driven into floodwater: Understanding challenges and identifying areas for providing support. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 2018;00:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.1812018
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Pearn JH (2018) Unintentional fatal child drowning in the bath: A 12‐year Australian review (2002–2014). Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 54(2), 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.136882018
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat P (2018) Preventing river drowning deaths: Lessons from coronial recommendations. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 29(2), 144–152. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.242018
Peden, AE, Franklin, RC, & Leggat, PA (2018) PW 1917 Building the evidence base for river drowning prevention: the Australian experience. Injury Prevention, 24(Suppl 2), A155–A155. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprevention-2018-safety.4282018
Peden A, Franklin R,  Queiroga A (2018) Epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for the prevention of global unintentional fatal drowning in people aged 50 years and older: a systematic review. Injury Prevention 24(3), 240–247. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2017-0423512018
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat PA (2018) Exploring visitation at rivers to understand drowning risk. Injury Prevention Published Online First: 06 June 2018. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2018-0428192018
Hamilton K, Keech JJ, Peden AE, Hagger MS (2018) Alcohol use, aquatic injury, and unintentional drowning: A systematic literature review. Drug and Alcohol Review 37(6): 752-773. doi:10.1111/dar.128172018
Hamilton K, Peden AE, Keech JJ, Hagger MS (2018) Changing people’s attitudes and beliefs toward driving through floodwaters: evaluation of a video infographic. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour 53(2018): 50-602018
Hamilton K, Price S, Keech JJ, Peden AE, Hagger MS (2018) Drivers’ experiences during floods: Investigating the psychological influences underpinning decisions to avoid driving through floodwater. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 28: 507-518. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.12.0132018
Franklin RC, Peden AE, Hamilton EB, et al. (2017) The burden of unintentional drowning: global, regional and national estimates of mortality from the global burden of disease 2017 Study. Injury Prevention Epub. doi:10.1136/ injuryprev-2019-0434842017
Franklin RC, Pearn JH, Peden, AE (2017) Drowning fatalities in childhood: the role of pre-existing medical conditions. Archives of Disease in Childhood 102(10), 888–893. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2017-3126842017
Franklin RC, Peden, AE (2017) Improving pool fencing legislation in Queensland, Australia: attitudes and impact on child drowning fatalities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph141214502017
Peden AE, Franklin, RC, Leggat, PA (2017) Alcohol and its contributory role in fatal drowning in Australian rivers, 2002-2012. Accident Analysis and Prevention 98, 259–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.10.0092017
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Mahony AJ, Scarr J, Barnsley, PD (2017) Using a retrospective cross-sectional study to analyse unintentional fatal drowning in Australia: ICD-10 coding-based methodologies verses actual deaths. BMJ Open 7(12), e019407. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-0194072017
Mahony AJ, Peden AE, Franklin RC, Pearn JH, Scarr J (2017) Fatal, unintentional drowning in older people: Pre-existing medical conditionsHealthy Aging Research 6: 1-82017
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat P, Aitken P (2017) Causal pathways of flood related river drowning deaths in Australia. PLOS Currents Disasters 2017 May 18. Edition 1. doi:10.1371/currents.dis.001072490b201118f0f689c0fbe7d4372017
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Scarr J (2017) Measuring Australian Children’s Water Safety Knowledge: The National Water Safety Quiz. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education Vol. 10: No. 2, Article 4. Available at: https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/ijare/vol10/iss2/42017
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat PA, Zeeb H (2016) The Hidden Tragedy of Rivers: A Decade of Unintentional Fatal Drowning in Australia. PLoS ONE 11(8), e0160709. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.01607092016
Peden A. Franklin, R, Leggat P (2016) International travelers and unintentional fatal drowning in Australia - a 10 year review 2002-12. Journal of Travel Medicine 23(2), tav031. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/tav0312016
Peden AE, Franklin RC, Leggat PA (2016) Fatal river drowning: the identification of research gaps through a systematic literature review. Injury Prevention 22(3), 202–209. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2015-0417502016
Hamilton K, Peden AE, Pearson M, Hagger MS (2016) Stop there's water on the road! Identifying key beliefs guiding people’s willingness to drive through flooded waterways. Safety Science 86, 308-314. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.0042016
Wallis BA, Watt K, Franklin RC, Nixon JW, & Kimble RM (2015) Drowning mortality and morbidity rates in children and adolescents 0-19 yrs: a population-based study in Queensland, Australia. PLoS ONE 10(2), e0117948. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.01179482015
Wallis, BA, Watt, K, Franklin, RC, & Kimble, RM (2015) Drowning in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and adolescents in Queensland (Australia). BMC Public Health 15(1), 795. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2137-z2015
Guevarra, JP, Franklin, RC, Basilio, JA, Orbillo, LL, Go JJL (2015) Child drowning prevention in the Philippines: the beginning of a conversation. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 22(3), 243–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2014.9122352015
Franklin RC, Peden AE, Hodges S, Lloyd N, Larsen P, O’Connor C, Scarr J (2015) Learning to swim – What influences success? International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education 9(3): 220-240.2015
Pearn JH, Franklin RC, Peden AE (2015) Hypoxic Blackout: Diagnosis, Risks and Prevention. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education 9(3): 342-347.2015
Bugeja L & Franklin RC (2013) An analysis of stratagems to reduce drowning deaths of young children in private swimming pools and spas in Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 20(3), 282–294. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2012.7170862013
Watt K, Franklin RC, Wallis B, Griffin BR, Leggat P, & Kimble R (2013) Comparing apples with apples? Abusive head trauma, drowning and LSVROs. Injury Prevention 19(1), 75. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2012-0406202013
Franklin RC & Pearn JH (2011) Drowning for love: the aquatic victim-instead-of-rescuer syndrome: drowning fatalities involving those attempting to rescue a child. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 47(1-2), 44–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1754.2010.01889.x2011
Franklin RC, Scarr JP, & Pearn JH (2010) Reducing drowning deaths: the continued challenge of immersion fatalities in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 192(3), 123-126. https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03448.x2010
Franklin, R. (2000) Farm-related fatalities in Australia, 1989-1992. Moree, N.S.W.: National Farm Injury Data Centre.2000